Extending the Simple View of Reading: A test of the Cognitive Foundations of Learning to read model

Extending the Simple View of Reading: A test of the Cognitive Foundations of Learning to read model

First Author: Alison Arrow -- University of Canterbury
Additional authors/chairs: 
William Tunmer; James Chapman
Keywords: confirmatory factor analysis, Decoding, Linguistic Comprehension, Early Literacy
Abstract / Summary: 

Purpose:
The Simple View of Reading can adequately explain the act of reading but does not adequately explain the process of learning to read within both decoding and language comprehension. The Cognitive Foundations of Learning to Read (CFLR; Tunmer & Hoover, 2014) has been developed to capture the developmental process within decoding and language comprehension. The exploratory analysis examines the developmental appropriateness of the model for explaining learning.
Method:
Students (n=355) were followed from school entry to the beginning of the following school year as part of a larger, ongoing longitudinal study. They were assessed on a range of standardised and non-standardised, researcher-developed, measures for decoding components (letter sounds, letter names, phonological awareness, psuedoword reading, spelling, word reading) and linguistic comprehension components (receptive vocabulary, phonological memory, sentence correction).
Results:
Preliminary confirmatory factor analysis provides evidence of the initial decoding factor components of the CFLR (letter knowledge, phonological awareness, alphabetic coding knowledge). These factors all load onto the decoding construct, as do vocabulary and nonword repetition to linguistic comprehension. The patterns of factors loading onto the two main constructs change across time with alphabetic coding knowledge beginning to add to the decoding construct mid-way through the school year.
Conclusions:
The results are discussed in terms of how the CFLR model can be used as the basis for effective classroom instruction when combined with effective assessment of each component. There are also implications for the theory of how early literacy skills contribute to the act of learning to read within the SVR framework.