Investigating the Double-Deficit Hypothesis in more and less transparent orthographies: A longitudinal study from preschool to grade 2

Investigating the Double-Deficit Hypothesis in more and less transparent orthographies: A longitudinal study from preschool to grade 2

First Author: Bjarte Furnes -- University of Bergen
Additional authors/chairs: 
Åsa Elwér; Stefan Samuelsson; Brian Byrne; Richard Olson
Keywords: double-deficit hypothesis, Cross-linguistic, Phonological awareness, Rapid naming, Literacy development
Abstract / Summary: 

We investigated the double deficit hypothesis (DDH) in a longitudinal dataset of U.S., Australian, and Scandinavian children followed from preschool to grade 2. Four groups, i.e., double deficit, single deficits and no deficit, were selected in preschool, kindergarten, and grade 1 and compared on reading and spelling skills in grades 1 and 2. In all analyses, children with a deficit in PA and/or RAN showed the most extensive reading and spelling difficulties, and this pattern of findings was identical across samples. Moreover, across countries, RAN-deficits showed a stronger effect on reading whereas PA-deficits showed stronger effects on spelling. Overall, the results supported the basic premises of the DDH that RAN and PA are separable deficits with partly different effects on reading and spelling. The results also supported a universal view of literacy development, as we found similar predictive patterns of DDH subtypes across orthographies.