Longitudinal replication of a Tier II intervention model for struggling readers across all grades

Longitudinal replication of a Tier II intervention model for struggling readers across all grades

First Author: Kathleen Brown -- University of Utah Reading Clinic
Additional authors/chairs: 
Matthew K. Fields
Keywords: Intervention, Poor readers, Grades K-12, Response to Intervention, Reading development
Abstract / Summary: 

Purpose – investigate the longitudinal efficacy of a Tier II intervention model for struggling readers in grades 1 and above in Title I schools.

Method – The current study evaluated a Tier II model of intervention based on quasi-experiments published in the research literature nearly twenty years ago. The model includes assisted reading, systematic phonics, and fluency work implemented in 45 minute sessions. From 2003 to 2017, 2,955 ethnically and linguistically diverse struggling readers from 80 Title I schools in grades 1 through 12 received this intervention model from teachers and para-professionals. Criterion-referenced (Reading Level Assessment; FLASH) and norm-referenced (WRMT-Passage Comprehension; Word Attack) assessments were used to measure students’ reading abilities early and late in each school year. Gain scores, standard scores and percentile ranks were computed.

Results – Over time, on the RLA--an informal reading inventory--students achieved an average of 1.05 years growth in an average of 85 sessions for first graders and an average of 52 sessions for all other students. Annual average gain—with a range of .97 to 1.33--was consistent with total average gain. First graders, other elementary students and secondary students made 1.25, 1.11 and 1.1 years of growth respectively. Special Education students made an average of .96 years growth. Word recognition automaticity also improved commensurately with approximately 1 year of growth (1.13). On average, passage comprehension standard scores (WRMT-PC) improved from 93 to 98, (percentile rank from 30th to 47th). Phonological recoding ability standard scores (WRMT-WA) improved from 83 to 87 (percentile rank from 13th to 20th).

Conclusions – Aggregated and annual data from 2003 to 2017 suggest that the Tier II intervention model under investigation has consistent and measurable efficacy in helping struggling readers in grades 1 through 12 improve their reading abilities.