Reading two illustrated narratives with modeling instruction: A study of eye movements evidence

Reading two illustrated narratives with modeling instruction: A study of eye movements evidence

First Author: Sunny S. J. Lin -- National Chiao Tung University
Additional authors/chairs: 
Ming-Yi Hsieh
Keywords: Eye movements, Text difficulty, Modeling of reading, Illustrated narratives, EFL readers
Abstract / Summary: 

Purpose. Eye-tracking technology has been adopted to investigate the effects of modeling for its reliable measures in science reading (Mason, Scheiter, & Tornatora, 2017; Mason, Pluchino, & Tornatora, 2015, 2016) and it reveals the cognitive reading processes in language learning (Godfroid et al., 2018; Godfroid & Winke, 2015; Joseph & Nation, 2018; Kang, 2014). However, few studies have delved into exploring how EFL readers process illustrated narratives with modeling effects. We aimed to apply modeling as guidance when EFL read illustrated narratives to reveal their ongoing reading process from eye movement data.

Method. We investigated reading processes on 88 EFL learners (Mage= 17.8) via eye-tracking techniques. Participants were assigned into four groups, in which they were provided with/without modeling to read two different level (simple/complex) illustrated narratives embedded with story structures (prologue/climax/resolution). Modeled groups were instructed to read illustrations before reading the experimental illustrated text, while non-modeled groups were not provided instructions. Two-way factorial independent ANOVAs were conducted to analyze data of fixation counts (FC), dwell time (DT), and run counts (RC).

Results. Results showed that modeling effects were found on FC and RC in both text and illustration areas while the article level had significant impacts on FC, DT, and RC of both text and illustration across story structures when they read different text difficulty articles.

Conclusions. The findings of modeling effects suggest that EFL readers applied modeling strategy successfully only in the first story structure, while the article level might be a critical factor when considering providing modeling to EFL readers.