A systematic review of status and effectiveness of reading instruction from classroom observation studies

A systematic review of status and effectiveness of reading instruction from classroom observation studies

First Author: Yucheng Cao -- University of California, Irvine
Additional authors/chairs: 
Young-Suk Grace Kim
Keywords: Classroom Observation, Reading development, Literacy Coaching
Abstract / Summary: 

Purpose
This study focuses on how the quality, quantity, and types of literacy instruction are related to children’s reading development, and how the relations are influenced by the characteristics of teachers and children by conducting a systematic review of the research involving classroom observation from prekindergarten to 6th grade.
Method
Literature was searched through five databases and identified studies were imported to the Rayyan website application for collaborative screening. Descriptive information and bivariate correlations between classroom variables and children reading outcomes were coded.
Results
Classroom variables were modestly to moderately associated with students’ reading outcomes. Teachers who incorporated more 1) small-group instruction, student-centered active learning, 2) individualized/differentiated instruction, 3) higher-order thinking activities and meaning-focused instruction tended to yield greater academic growth and better behavioral performance, but these impacts were subject to teachers’ pedagogic approaches, specialized knowledge, and varied by children’s beginning literacy skills as well as grade levels.
Conclusions
Reviewed studies collectively reported more code-based, whole-group instruction, whereas less meaning-based/comprehension instruction per class. Individualized/differentiated instruction was hardly observed among the sampled classrooms even though relevant professional development programs were funded and provided. These results have implications for teacher training programs and educational policies.